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    混凝土框架與砌體之間的裂縫原因與處理
    RSS 打印 復制鏈接 發布時間:2013-12-16 08:30:43

     1、         混凝土框架和砌體

    混凝土由于自身的特殊性能在水利水電工程、橋梁工程等土木工程領域發揮著極其重要作用。在建筑施工中,混凝土主要有以下幾種性能,所以在建筑施工中較為常用,以免、因為其功能比較實用與橋梁施工混凝土拌合物最重要的性能。它綜合表示拌合物的稠度、流動性、可塑性、抗分層離析泌水的性能及易抹面性等。混凝土硬化后的最重要的力學性能,是指混凝土抵抗壓、拉、彎、剪等應力的能力。水灰比、水泥品種和用量、集料的品種和用量以及攪拌、成型、養護,都直接影響混凝土的強度。混凝土按標準抗壓強度(以邊長為150mm的立方體為標準試件,在標準養護條件下養護28天,按照標準試驗方法測得的具有95%保證率的立方體抗壓強度)劃分的強度等級,稱為標號,分為C10、C15、C20、C25等。混凝土抗拉強度僅為其抗壓強度的1/8~1/13。提高混凝土抗拉、抗壓強度的比值是混凝土改性的重要方面。混凝土在荷載或溫濕度作用下會產生變形,主要包括彈性變形、塑性變形、收縮和溫度變形等。混凝土在短期荷載作用下的彈性變形主要用彈性模量表示。在長期荷載作用下,應力不變、應變持續增加的現象為徐變。應變不變、應力持續減少的現象為松弛。由于水泥水化、水泥石的碳化和失水等原因產生的體積變形,稱為收縮。混凝土的變形分為兩類,一類是在荷載作用下的受力變形,如單調短期加載的變形,荷載長期作用下的變形以及多次重復加載的變形;另一類與受力無關,稱為體積變形,如混凝土收縮以及溫度變化引起的變形,在一般情況下,混凝土具有良好的耐久性。但在寒冷地區,特別是在水位變化的工程部位以及在飽水狀態下受到頻繁的凍融交替作用時,混凝土易于損壞。為此對混凝土要有一定的抗凍性要求。用于不透水的工程時,要求混凝土具有良好的抗滲性和耐蝕性,抗滲性、抗凍性、抗侵蝕性為混凝土耐久性。在混凝土施工中根據不同施工要求和條件,混凝土可在施工現場或攪拌站集中攪拌。流動性較好的混凝土拌合物可用自落式攪拌機;流動性較小或干硬性混凝土易用強制式攪拌機攪拌。攪拌前應按配合比要求配料,控制稱量誤差。投料順序和攪拌時間對混凝土質量均有影響,應嚴加掌握,使各組分材料拌合均勻。

    2、        混凝土框架與砌體之間的裂縫

    在混凝土框架與砌體之間產生的裂縫,主要原因是以下幾種裂縫:(1)濕脹干縮易產生變形裂縫。包括其它材料的燒結制品,其干縮變形很小,且變形完成比較快。只要不使用新出窯的磚,一般不要考慮砌體本身的干縮變形引起的附加應力。但對這類砌體在潮濕情況下會產生較大的濕脹,而且這種濕脹是不可逆的變形。混凝土小型空心砌塊砌體有一個很重要的物理特性,就是對砌體含水率的變化非常敏感,隨著含水率的變化而產生顯著的體積變化,在砌塊墻體的干縮過程中,當其內部產生的拉應力超過砌塊與砂漿間的枯結力,或灰縫的抗剪強度時,墻體就會產生裂縫。這種裂縫有以下特點:較普遍的裂縫是45º的階梯狀,沿灰縫開裂,沒有出現砌塊開裂,裂縫在墻體兩面均比較明顯出現,寬度大致一樣;框架結構中,在梁與墻的交接部位產生水平方向的裂縫;(2)溫度的影響所引起的裂縫。因屋內的墻面受陽光直射時間長,屋面與墻體產生較大的溫差,加上兩者的溫度變形系數不同,屋面變形受到墻體的約束,當兩者組合的主拉應力大于砌體的抗拉、抗剪能力時便出現裂縫。其特點是屋頂部內、外縱墻及橫墻端部的八字斜裂縫;在屋面板梁底和墻體交界處產生水平裂縫及包角縫;除頂層屋面梁底墻體外,窗臺板、女兒墻頂也是溫度變形部位,最易造成裂縫和滲漏;(3)地基所引起的裂縫。地基發生不均勻沉降后,沉降大的部分砌體與沉降曉得部分砌體產生相對位移,從而使砌體中產生附加的拉力或剪力,當這種附加內力超過砌體強度時,砌體中便產生裂縫。這種裂縫往往與地面成45º左右夾角,上寬下窄斜縫朝向凹陷處(沉降大)的部位;(4)施工所引起的裂縫。在建筑物墻體上的分布一般可為這兩種裂縫的組合,或因具體不同而呈現出不同的裂縫現象,而其裂縫的后果往往比較單一因素更嚴重。另外設計上的疏忽、無針對性防裂措施、材料質量不合格、施工質量差、違反設計施工規程、砌體強度達不到設計要求,以及缺乏經驗也是造成墻體裂縫的重要原因之一。如對混凝土砌塊、灰砂磚等新型墻體的材料,沒有針對材料的特殊性,采用適合的砌筑砂漿、注芯材料和相應的構造措施,仍沿用粘土磚使用的砂漿和相應的抗裂措施,必然造成墻體出現較嚴重的裂縫。例如:腳手架洞眼、空調管留洞處等臨時施工洞口封堵不好,有通縫、透光縫現象。在水電安裝在砌體中配管,亂鑿亂挖,影響墻體整體質量等現象。

    3、         混凝土框架與砌體之間的裂縫的處理

    在混凝土框架與砌體之間的裂縫的處理中,我們針對上述所產生的原因來進行處理,主要有以下幾方面:(1)設計方面:在設計時,認真做好地質勘查工作,重視地基處理,設置合理的沉降縫,避免由于地基基礎不均勻沉降造成砌塊墻體裂縫。對于建筑設計平面布置應規整、平直,縱橫墻布置要均勻對稱,應采用合理的結構措施,加強地基圈梁的剛度,增強基礎對建筑物沉降變形的協調能力,用以提高建筑物整體性和抗側力能力。應重視溫度變化等原因造成的混凝土空心砌塊墻體裂縫,設計時要充分考慮減緩消除熱脹冷縮動力源,增強相關砌體抗力,提高抹灰的抗裂能力,在設計的時候可以通過設置構造措施以增強墻體的整體性和延性;(2)在施工方面,要掌握好墻體的抹灰時間和抹灰厚度。一般應讓墻體干縮趨于穩定后方能進行內、外墻面的抹灰及裝飾。墻面抹灰厚度要均勻。在完成屋面板結構層的施工后,要盡快進行隔熱層板的鋪設。減少陽光直射屋面時間,避免溫差影響產生裂縫。砌塊的搬運過程必須輕拿輕放, 嚴防野蠻裝卸來防止因砌塊內傷而產生一時釋放不了的應力,并要求堆放整齊,加蓋防水物品,嚴禁雨淋。在施工頂層的時候,頂層的內抹灰應在屋面保溫層、隔熱層施工完畢后進行,以降低溫差的影響。外墻的抹灰宜在主體結構封頂后,并在墻體干縮趨于穩定后施工,防止以后灰層開裂;(3)管理方面:在管理中,我們要從方方面面入手,質量、人員、材料都是管理中的重點。對于施工的人員來說,要提高人員的素質,施工人員要掌握好時間和具體的知識,要掌握好墻面抹灰時間和抹灰厚度。一般應讓墻體干縮趨于文帝后方能進行內、外墻面的抹灰及裝飾。墻面抹灰厚度要均勻,并且,砌筑工人上崗前應做好技術交底,要求每一層的同部位墻體應由同一人施工。在材料方面,嚴禁用斷磚、碎磚砌筑。砌筑砂漿一定要按配合比要求下料,嚴格控制砂漿飽滿度;砂漿飽滿度要求達95%以上,并按規定預埋柱的拉結筋。

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