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    大體積混凝土裂縫的控制與處理
    RSS 打印 復制鏈接 發布時間:2013-12-16 08:34:42

     【摘要】隨著國家建設的發展,市政工程的投入進一步加大,大體積混凝土在橋梁結構中應用的越來越多,而且主要應用于主要受力部分,但是,相應暴露出來的問題也越來越多,其中,大體積混凝土的裂縫問題尤為突出。本文通過現場施工管理,從設計、施工的角度,分析了造成橋梁結構中大體積混凝土裂縫的原因,并提出如何預防,檢查和處理大體積混凝土裂縫的主要技術措施。
    【關鍵詞】大體積混凝土;裂縫;原因;控制;處理防范


    1、         混凝土裂縫產生的原因

    1.1抗拉強度

    大體積混凝土結構通常具有以下特點:混凝土是脆性材料,抗拉強度只有抗壓強度的1/10左右。大體積混凝土的斷面尺寸較大,由于水泥的水化熱會使混凝土內部溫度急劇上升;以及在以后的降溫過程中,在一定的約束條件下會產生相當大的拉應力。大體積混凝土結構中通常只在表面配置少量鋼筋,或者不配鋼筋,因此拉應力要由混凝土本身來承擔。

    1.2溫度變化引起的裂縫

    溫度變化引起的裂縫多發生在大體積混凝土表面或溫差變化較大地區的混凝土結構中。混凝土澆筑后,在硬化過程中,水泥水化產生大量的水化熱,(當水泥用量在350~550kg/m3,每立方米混凝土將釋放出17500~27500KJ的熱量,從而使混凝土內部的溫度升達70℃左右甚至更高)。混凝土具有熱脹冷縮的性質,當外部環境或結構內部溫度發生變化,混凝土將發生變形,若變形遭到約束,則在結構內將產生應力,當應力超過混凝土抗拉強度時即產生溫度裂縫。溫度裂縫的特征主要是表面裂縫的走向一般與主筋平行或接近平行;裂縫寬度大小不一。

    1.3塑性裂縫

    塑性裂縫多在新澆注的混凝土構件暴露于空氣中的上表面出現,塑性收縮是指混凝土在凝結之前,表面因失水較快而產生的收縮。塑性收縮裂縫一般在干熱或大風天氣出現,裂縫多呈中間寬、兩端細且長短不一,互不連貫狀態,較短的裂縫一般長20~30㎝,較長的裂縫可達2~3m,寬1~5㎜,混凝土在終凝前幾乎沒有強度或強度很小,或者混凝土剛剛終凝而強度很小時,受高溫或較大風力的影響,混凝土表面失水過快,造成毛細管中產生較大的負壓而使混凝土體積急劇收縮,而此時混凝土的強度又無法抵抗其本身收縮,因此產生龜裂。影響混凝土塑性收縮開裂的主要因素有水灰比、混凝土的凝結時間,環境溫度、風速、相對濕度等等。

    1.4荷載引起的裂縫

    混凝土橋梁在常規靜、動荷載及次應力下產生的裂縫稱荷載裂縫,歸納起來主要有直接應力裂縫,直接應力裂縫是指外荷載引起的直接應力產生的裂縫,設計計算階段,結構計算時不計算或部分漏算;計算模型不合理;結構受力假設與實際受力不符;荷載少算或漏算;內力與配筋計算錯誤;結構安全系數不夠。結構設計時不考慮施工的可能性;設計斷面不足;結構處理不當;設計圖紙交代不清等。施工時,不加限制地堆放施工機具、材料;不了解預制結構結構受力特點,隨意翻身、起吊、運輸、安裝;不按設計圖紙施工,擅自更改結構施工順序,改變結構受力模式;不對結構做機器振動下的疲勞強度驗算等。

    2、        大體積混凝土裂縫的控制措施

    2.1摻加外加料和外加劑

    在大體積混凝土中摻入一定量的粉煤灰后,可以增加混凝土的密實度,水泥由于溫差主要是由水化熱產生的,所以為了減小溫差就要盡量降低水化熱,為了降低水化熱,要盡量采取早期水化熱低的水泥,由于水泥的水化熱是礦物成分與細度的函數,要降低水泥的水化熱,主要是選擇適宜的礦物組成和調整水泥的細度模數,硅酸鹽水泥的礦物組成主要有:C3S、C2S、C3A和C4AF,試驗表明:水泥中的鋁酸三鈣和硅酸三鈣含量高的,水化熱較高,所以,為了減少水泥的水化熱,必須降低熟料中C3A和C3S的含量。在施工中一般采用中熱硅酸鹽水泥和低熱礦渣水泥。另外,在不影響水泥活性的情況下,要盡量使水泥的細度適當減小,因為水泥的細度會影響水化熱的放熱速率,試驗表明比表面積每增加100㎝2/g,1d的水化熱增加17J/g~21J/g, 7d和20d均增加4J/g~12J/g。

    2.2提高抗滲能力

    提高抗滲能力,改善混凝土的工作度,降低最終收縮值,減少水泥用量。要降低大體積混凝土的水泥水化熱引起的內部溫升,防止結構出現溫度裂縫,利用粉煤灰作混凝土的摻合料是最有效的方法之一。外加劑可以從以下幾個方面來選擇。UFA膨脹劑,它可以等量替換水泥。并且使混凝土產生適度的膨脹。一方面保證混凝土的密實度,另一方面使混凝土內部產生壓力,以抵消混凝土中產生的部分拉應力。

    2.3做好表面隔熱保護

    大體積混凝土的溫度裂縫,主要是由內外溫差過大引起的。混凝土澆注后,水泥因水化引起水化熱,由于混凝土體積大,聚集在內部的水泥水化熱不易散發,混凝土內部溫度降顯著升高,而其表面則散熱較快,形成了較大的溫度差,使混凝土內部產生壓應力,表面產生拉應力。此時,混凝土齡期短,抗拉強度低。當溫差產生的表面抗拉應力超過混凝土極限抗拉強度,則會在混凝土表面產生裂縫。如果此時受到冷空氣的襲擊,或者過分通風散熱,使表面溫度降溫過大就很容易導致裂縫的產生,所以在混凝土拆模后,特別是低溫季節,在拆模后立即采取表面保護。防止表面降溫過大,引起裂縫。另外,當日平均氣溫在2~3d內連續下降不小于6~8℃時,28d齡期內混凝土表面必須進行表面保護。

    3、         大體積混凝土裂縫的處理防范

    3.1大體積混凝土施工段的劃分及澆筑順序應根據具體工程結構確定,通常按該工程項目劃分表的單元工程進行劃分。混凝土可采用混凝土運輸車運到現場,汽車泵或混凝土輸送泵運送入倉;如采用非泵送混凝土,可用吊車直接布料或搭設腳手架采用機動車布料。大體積混凝土必須根據當地中長期天氣預報,選擇最佳天氣條件進行澆筑,應盡量安排在低溫時段澆筑,以最大限度降低混凝土的初凝溫度。在澆筑過程中,應遵循“同時澆筑,分層推進,一次到頂,循序漸進”的成熟工藝。振搗時重點控制兩點,即混凝土流淌的最近點和最遠點,振動點振動時不能漏振,盡可能采用兩次振搗工藝,以提高混凝土的密實度。

    3.2加強后期養護工作,養護主要是保持適宜的溫度和濕度,以便控制混凝土內表溫差,促進混凝土強度的正常發展及防止混凝土裂縫的產生和發展。根據工程的具體情況,應盡可能多養護一段時間,拆模后立即回土或覆蓋保護,同時預防近期驟冷氣候影響,以控制內表溫差,防止混凝土早期和中期裂縫。養護用水的溫度應與現場測得的混凝土表面溫度接近,以免人為造成混凝土表面產生溫度梯度,進而出現裂縫。大體積混凝土的養護,不僅要滿足強度增長的需要,還應通過溫度控制,防止因溫度變形引起混凝土的開裂。溫度控制就是對混凝土的澆筑溫度和混凝土內部的最高溫度進行控制。

    4、  結束語

    通過對裂縫產生的原因、機理的分析,采取一定的針對性的措施,大體積混凝土的裂縫是可以減少到合理范圍的。但由于裂縫產生的原因很復雜,要做到完全避免裂縫的產生還有一定的難度,還需要大量的研究和實踐。控制和預防大體積混凝土裂縫,大體積混凝土的材料型裂縫主要是由溫度應力和混凝土收縮引起的,筆者認為精心選擇原材料,并在施工中采用合理的方法,能有效的防止裂縫的發生。
     

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