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    淺談路基注漿加固工程施工工藝
    RSS 打印 復制鏈接 發布時間:2017-05-12 10:51:32

     淺談路基注漿加固工程施工工藝

      摘要:該文以石家莊市某路路基注漿加固工程為例,說明了注漿技術在路基加固工程施工中注漿加固機理,主要設計參數,施工工藝,質量檢查等。分析了路基注漿加固施工特點,特殊情況下的技術處理措施,為以后類似路基注漿加固工程提供參考。

      關鍵詞:路基注漿加固,施工工藝,質量檢查 

      1工程概況

      石家莊市某路為市區內主要機動車道路,全長3324m。該路段最早修建于1955年,原路面為一幅路型式,后經幾次加寬蓋被成目前三幅路型式。其中,1955年修建了6.4m寬18cm厚水泥混凝土路面,后加蓋泥灰結碎石找平層;8cm厚瀝青貫入式碎石基層和4cm厚中粒式瀝青混凝土。1955年修建瀝青混凝土路面結構:4cm瀝青混凝土+15cm碎石基層+30cm1:4灰土。目前該路段路面破損非常嚴重,急需進行整修處理。經研究決定采用注漿加固法加固路基。

      2公路病害機理分析及治理方法

      1路基不均勻變形是道路病害的根本原因,主要是以下原因導致:

      1)路基土層結構的不均勻性。

      2)路基土層的欠壓密。

      3)修建地下管線的影響。

      4)路面“天窗”導致對路基的水力侵蝕(補-徑-排)。

      5)地下管線滲漏造成的溶蝕孔洞、管涌通道。

      2治理方法選擇原則

      路面補強治表不治本,路基補強,消除地質缺陷才是根本途徑。

      3采用注漿加固法的優越性

      固化劑(漿液)沿路基軟弱部位滲透充填、壓密固結、劈裂置換、膠結固化,消除地質缺陷,改善路基受力性狀,提高承載力,減少不均勻沉陷。

      1)根本消除路基不均勻變形,使病害從根本上得以防治。

      2)經濟效益高。有資料表明,注漿加固法和傳統方法相比,可節約公路維護維修費用40%以上。

      3)不斷交、工期短、污染小、施工文明。

      4)技術先進、工法成熟、效果可靠。

      4路基注漿加固施工

      4.1注漿加固機理

      土層壓密固結,提高路基承載力,減少沉降。漿液劈裂置換,提高土體結構強度,消除地質缺陷。空隙滲透充填,填充路基空洞裂隙,封堵水力侵蝕或管涌通道。散碎結構膠結作用,改善路面基層結構,提高路面基層整體強度。

      4.2注漿施工設計

      本工程采用靜壓注漿法,法靜壓注漿法是利用液壓、氣壓和電化學的原理,通過注漿管將能強力固化的漿液注入地層中,漿液以充填、滲透、擠密和劈裂等方式,擠走土顆粒或巖石裂隙中的水分和空氣后占據其位置,漿液固結后將原來松散的土粒或裂隙膠結成一個整體,從而改變巖土體的物理力學性質。靜壓注漿法適用土質范圍:中粗砂及砂礫石,破碎巖石與卵礫石,軟粘土和濕陷性黃土。

      1)工程量布置

      排水管線兩側:距管道或馬蹄形溝外墻0.5m處布孔,間距1.5m,深度至管道底;無明顯變形地段:加固深度1m,鉆孔間距2m×2m,此部分占80%;路面不均勻變形顯著,面層龜裂地段:加固深度2m,如有嚴重部分應加密布孔(孔間距調整為1~1.5m),此部分占20%;鉆孔梅花狀布置,邊排孔距離機動車道道路邊緣1m。

      2)鉆孔施工工法

      臺鉆回轉鉆進+路基人工洛陽鏟鉆進,工程鉆機回轉鉆進。

      3)漿液配制

      水泥系漿材,水泥p.s32.5,常規CB液。設計配比:W/B/C=1:0.1:1。制備漿液時先按照W/B=3:1的比例配制預水化B液,然后按照設計配比配制灌注漿液。

      4)注入工法

      成孔→安放注漿管并封堵孔口→攪漿→全斷面一次注漿→待凝。

      5)注入壓力

      由于注漿壓力與圖的重度,強度,初始應力,孔深,位置及注漿次序等因素有關,而這些因素有難以準確確定,因而本工程注漿壓力通過試驗和地區經驗確定,設計注入壓力0.4Mpa。

      6)終孔標準

      漿液注入量采取壓力~流量雙控法:在注入壓力達到設計壓力的前提下達到穩定為原則,穩定時間標準為5分鐘。當注入壓力大于2倍設計壓力且漿液無法注入時可終孔。當單孔注入量異常大時應暫停注漿,分析清楚原因后采取間歇注漿的方法進行。孔口反漿時采取間歇注漿的方法。

      7)鉆孔填礫及恢復

      注漿鉆孔內填入碎石礫料并補充水泥~水玻璃漿液使之形成微型樁體。孔口采用冷補料恢復。

      4.3路基加固質量檢驗

      參照國標《建筑地基基礎工程施工質量驗收規程》(GB50202-2002)制定的驗收標準

      注漿地基質量檢驗標準表4.7.4                   

      4.4效果檢驗與評價

      1)效果檢驗

      本次施工路段共完成注漿孔586個,共計6540米,共注入水泥5200噸,平均注入水泥量0.795t/m,地面上抬數厘米,從總注入量和單位注入量數據分析,注漿段土體空隙均有大幅度降低,從而說明施工地段地層的可注漿性。

      2)標貫試驗

      施工結束15天后,監理在施工路段范圍內選擇了5個代表性地點(其中2個在注漿點位,2個在兩相鄰注漿點位中間,1個在相鄰對角注漿點中間),做了標貫試驗,試驗后數據說明,注漿后標貫擊數明顯比注漿前擊數高,說明注漿后使路基土層壓密固結,提高了路基承載力,達到了我們的施工目的。

      5結語

      路基注漿加固施工使施工范圍內的土層空隙得到了有效充填,路基范圍內的土體經過注漿后,不同程度的得到了壓密固結,承載力明顯提高。路基加固選擇注漿方法比起其他諸如碎石樁,大開挖換填等處理方法,不但技術上可行,經濟上合理,工期較短,而且極大地減少了城市環境污染。  

      參考文獻:

      [1]中華人民共和國標準.建筑地基基礎工程施工質量驗收規程(GB50202-2002)

      [2]程驍張鳳祥.土與效果檢測[M].上海:同濟大學出版社,1998

      [3]彭振斌.注漿工程設計計算與施工[M].武漢:中國地質大學出版社,1997

      [4]賈家信,李財富,董紅霞.壓力注漿在已有建筑物地基加固中的應用.山西建筑,2001

      [5]阮文軍.注漿擴散與漿液若干基本性能研究.巖土工程學報.2005  

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