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    談建筑結構形式發展的力學原理
    RSS 打印 復制鏈接 發布時間:2019-06-12 17:11:04

     摘要:從古至今,房屋、橋梁等建筑在建造過程中都需要符合力學原理。遵循著將彎矩轉變為軸力的力學主線,貫穿著建筑史發展的全過程。運用力學原理能夠使建筑結構穩固,防止建筑物出現倒塌現象,同時,還能節約建筑材料。本文從力學主線的角度出發,分析建筑結構的發展歷程。

    關鍵詞:建筑結構形式;發展;力學原理

    1引言

    隨著社會的發展,建筑業也在不斷的發展。建筑業是我國的重要支柱產業,建筑業的發展帶動著我國經濟的發展。建筑結構形式需要運用力學原理,遵循將彎矩轉變為軸力的力學主線。運用力學原理進行建筑物建設,能夠節約建造成本,避免出現倒坍現象,促進人們的生活。

    2建筑結構形式的發展史

    建筑與結構是不可分割的,缺一不可。隨著經濟的發展,人們逐漸提高了對建筑結構的認識,建筑工程不僅要保證質量和性能,還需要符合美觀的要求,滿足人們的品味。因此,美觀實用和安全可靠逐漸成為建筑工程的重要評判標準。但是兩者基于不同的知識和技能,具有一定的差異,為了最大的滿足人們的需要,專業人員不斷提高這兩方面的技能,美觀實用和安全可靠的設計人員也不同。兩者的知識和技能不同,導致專業人員需要掌握的內容也不一樣。美觀實用要求專業人員掌握美術和建筑這兩方面的知識。安全可靠要求專業人員除了掌握美術和建筑這兩方面知識外,還需要掌握力學、數學、制造與施工也等專業知識。隨著建筑工程的發展,建筑工程要求專業人員掌握的專業知識也越來越多,美學、藝術等學科都需要專業人員掌握,學會運用,學習要求增多,難度也變大。建筑結構形式發展要求專業人員掌握專業知識,而專業知識又幫助建筑結構形式的發展,兩者缺一不可,相互促進。

    3建筑結構形式的劃分

    3.1按材料劃分建筑結構形式按使用材料劃分可分為木質結構、混合結構、鋼結構鋼筋混凝土結構、鋼筋混凝土與鋼的組合結構。其中,木質結構主要應用于單層建筑中,使用的材料為木制材料。混合結構主要應用于單層建筑和多層建筑,承重部分使用磚石材料,樓頂使用鋼筋混凝土材料。鋼結構主要應用于工廠房、承重能力強的廠房以及移動房等。其使用的材料主要是鋼。鋼筋混凝土結構主要應用于高層或者是多層建筑,其使用材料主要是鋼筋混凝土。鋼筋混凝土與鋼的組合結構主要應用于超高層建筑,其使用材料主要有混凝土與鋼筋。

    3.2按墻體劃分建筑結構形式按墻體劃分可分為全剪力墻結構、框架一剪力墻結構、框一一結構、簡體結構、框一一支結構、無梁樓蓋結構。全剪力墻主要應用于高層以及超高層建筑,其屬于建筑結構強度大。框架一剪力墻結構主要應用于高層建筑。框一一結構主要應用于高層和超高層建筑。簡體結構主要應用于超高層建筑。框一一支結構主要應用于超高層建筑,其主要材料是鋼結構。無梁樓蓋結構主要應用于大空間和大柱網建筑。

    4建筑結構形式遵循的自然力學規律

    隨著社會的發展,建筑結構形式的側重點不同,但是無論是建筑還是結構都需要遵循力學原理,保證建設和結構的安全。結構物承受著一定的荷載,其在每個截面上都會產生拉、壓軸力、剪力、彎矩、扭矩等。彎矩是最為危險的。彎矩和拉、壓軸力產生的力偶鉅是等效的。彎矩把內力作用到截面上,其內力分布不均勻。彎矩使中性層材料的力學性能得不到充分的施展。例如,一根桿件,給其施加一定的加壓力和壓力時采用軸向,折斷它的可能性很小。但是,采用橫向加力時會形成彎矩和剪力,折斷桿件就非常容易。因此,建筑結構構建為了能夠正常工作,必須要求每個截面承受剪力、拉、壓軸力、彎矩。

    5建筑結構的實例

    5.1堆砌結構古埃及金字塔就是采用堆砌結構建造的。建造者為了表達對帝王的崇拜,采用了石材進行建造,石材承壓能力強,且安全耐用。金字塔結構簡約、體積龐大,給人一種敬畏的感覺。從結構學來講,金字塔只承受壓應力,受力結構簡單。經歷了數年的風雨變化,金字塔依然屹立不倒。堆砌結構形式的受力情況符合石材的要求,受到當時人們的喜愛。但是,金字塔的建造時間漫長,運用大量的人力、物力、財力,其內部空間小,使用價值不高。隨著社會的進步,人類的需要提高,需要提高建筑結構的空間,由此,梁、板、柱結構出現在人們視野中。

    5.2梁、板、柱結構梁、板、柱結構應用的材料是木材。石材承受拉力的強度低,因此不能承受彎矩。木材能夠承受一定的拉力和壓力,值得使用。在當代,鋼材和鋼筋混凝土取代木材占據主導地位。石材雖然有一定的弊端,但是仍受到人們的認識,木材雖然受彎能力強,但是也有一定的局限。歐洲很多建筑都采用此結構。例如,愛琴文化的克諾索斯宮殿、宗教神廟等。隨后用發展了拱、殼、柱的結構。后來又出現了梁、板、拱、殼、柱的結構,其中羅馬建筑是此結構的典范。

    5.3拱、殼結構拱、殼結構深受古今中外的喜愛,拱、殼結構能夠覆蓋大跨度,代替了梁板結構。拱、殼結構符合把彎矩通過結構形式的改變轉化為軸力的規律。通過該規律建造出的結構具有堅固、耐用、不容易破壞,容易保留的特點。此結構經過無數人的實踐證明,具有可行性。實踐證明,拱結構產生的支座水平反力能夠使每一個截面生成負彎鉅,負彎矩能夠抵消正彎鉅,受壓力強。通過該結構建造的建筑物具有美觀實用、堅固耐用的優點。根據此結構建造的建筑物具有標志性作用。例如,意大利威尼斯、圣瑪麗亞.莎留特教堂、佛羅倫撒主教堂、羅馬城萬神廟、法國克勒芒-費杭圣母教堂等。

    6結束語

    隨著社會的發展,建筑業也在不斷的發展壯大,高層結構的建筑在建筑中占據重要位置。建筑結構形式需要遵循力學發展規律,根據該力學規律創造出更多的新結構,促進社會建筑業的發展。

    參考文獻:

    [1]王友三.建筑結構形式發展的力學原理[J].建筑工程技術與設計,2015(7):2260.

    [2]黃志東,何萍.經濟發展與建筑結構形式相關性初探[J].華南地震,2014(2):103~106.

    [3]于佳佳.淺談建筑結構形式及發展方向[J].建筑工程技術與設計,2016(19):3656.

    [4]王軒堃.建筑結構形式發展的力學原理分析[J].建筑工程技術與設計,2016(13):3369.

    [5]張繼東.現階段新型建筑結構形式的發展淺述[J].大科技,2015(12):271~272.

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