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    河道整治工程設計中生態觀念的融入
    RSS 打印 復制鏈接 發布時間:2019-06-13 10:44:50

     摘 要: 針對水利工程與河流生態系統的關系問題, 相關學者在大量科學研究的基礎上形成了一套理論與工程實踐相結合的河流生態恢復體系。現階段, 一些高度城市化的發達國家, 已經將河道的環境綜合治理視為一項生態修復工程, 在治理過程中不僅要注重工程設計原理的應用, 也要確保相關手段符合自然原理。本文通過總結播州區楓香紅色旅游文化創新區水環境治理工程的相關經驗, 分析了河道治理的生態水利模式、河道治理措施和環境保護設計方案, 以為類似工程提供參考。

      關鍵詞: 生態水利模式; 河道治理; 環境保護設計;

      現代水利工程學多注重水流控制及其設計計算, 以保證水工建筑物承載的強度、穩定性和耐久性。但在水利工程建設和實際改造中, 往往會忽略水體自身的需求, 包括河流形態的多樣化、河流湖泊與岸上生態系統的有機聯系等, 基于上述問題, 有關學者提出了建立和發展生態水工學。河道作為水利工程建設和改

    造的重要對象, 應在遵循景觀尺度和整體性原則的基礎上, 將生態理念應用到河道整治中, 推動水利工程朝著生態水利的方向發展。

      1、 河道治理的生態水利模式

      1.1、 水安全體系構建
    1) 完善防洪工程體系。河道治理應突出防洪納潮和水環境優化的目標, 采取疏浚治理、合理調配和開卡還河等措施, 提高河流的泄洪能力, 保證河流生態的穩定性;2) 落實非工程措施。工程措施和非工程措施結合起來是河道治理的基本理念, 從人與水和諧共處的理念出發, 一方面科學安排洪水出路, 另一方面采取有效手段對部分雨水或洪水進行資源利用。
    1.2、 水生態系統的保護
    建設生態型水利工程是河道治理的一個重要環節, 應在水利工程建設中積極落實有益于生態環境保護的措施, 具體包括以下幾個方面:1) 堤岸及護岸工程。推廣使用新型護岸, 堤防要采用緩坡式設計, 并對水下部分進行柔性化和粗化處理, 營造親水空間;2) 清淤清障。針對河道堤防范圍內影響河道行洪的人工構建物, 首先應對子堤實施拆除, 使其恢復過水行洪;3) 控導工程。控導工程措施的實施, 要求應充分遵循河流動力作用和泥沙沖淤的規律特性, 同時綜合考慮到生態和環境因素的影響。

      2、 工程概況

      2.1、 項目現狀
    白龍河是遵義市播州區楓香紅色旅游創新區水景觀的重要組成部分, 本文主要以白龍河0+000-2+500河段治理工程作為研究對象。
    白龍河全流域面積為29.8km?, 多年平均凈流量為1490萬m?/年;洪峰流量為114m?/s;上起茍滸攔河取水口, 下至集靈橋, 河道兩岸大多未做防護處理, 或局部進行了簡單粗陋的砌石防洪堤;該河道當前水生態環境直接影響紅創區水生態文明的建設, 限制了該地區旅游效益的提升;治理區河床及兩岸多為第四系沖洪積 (Qapl) 、殘坡積物 (Qedl) 覆蓋, 物質成分主要為耕植土、砂質粘土、砂土夾碎石、砂礫石等, 局部含淤泥質, 根據對兩岸民房、公路的建筑物基礎開挖情況調查, 覆蓋層一般厚1~5m。
    2.2、 項目地質和環境問題
    2.2.1、 工程地質問題
    沿線河道公路段, 局部貼近河道治理施工區, 在基礎開挖過程中, 應采取合理的放坡方式, 避免對公路及路基造成破壞;治理河段內局部河水較深, 堤防距離河道較近, 基礎開挖過程中有基坑涌水、河水倒灌以及基坑邊坡穩定等問題, 開挖過程中應注意排水、邊坡穩定及基坑涌水等問題, 并作好臨時支護處理。
    2.2.2、 環境地質問題
    局部河道經清淤及原堤防整修后, 河床高程下降, 雨季洪水能及時歸槽泄洪, 減少了岸坡沖刷, 有效解決了兩岸坡因洪水淹沒浸泡而產生的地質災害隱患, 建議兩岸農田采取適當的排水措施。

      3、 基于生態理念的河道治理設計分析

      3.1、 工程設計的思路
    本工程以通透、親水可達、生態、文化、景觀等多為維度的設計理念;在充分對場地歷史、地域文化、現狀等調查分析的基礎上, 通過相應的生態工程措施, 引導水流, 與水為友, 建立起一條集文化、生態景觀、游憩休閑、河床通透、會呼吸有生命力的河流景觀廊道。
    3.2、 河道治理設計方案
    3.2.1、 河道疏浚
    本次河道疏浚要求清除河道內體積較大的孤石、拆除阻水建筑物以及清除兩岸傾倒在河床內的雜物等措施, 提高河道可觀賞性。河道疏浚縱坡設計盡可能減少對原河床的開挖及回填, 僅作局部修整, 盡可能保留現有灘地。
    3.2.2、 堤岸生態修復
    本次治理河道兩岸主要是耕地, 結合本區域新農村建設和美麗鄉村打造, 河道護岸主要采取斜坡式生態治理形式, 即河堤下部采取自然石駁岸或防腐木樁固岸, 上部為斜坡土堤, 土堤坡比迎水面不陡于1:1.5, 土堤表面采用植物護坡;斜坡式生態護岸5.0km。比如樁號1+510~1+690段現狀為漿砌石擋墻, 現沿墻體堆砌自然景觀石, 頂部覆土綠化;樁號1+690~2+180段現狀為灘涂地帶, 局部作削坡處理, 采用斜坡式生態土堤護岸, 大塊石或防腐木樁固腳, 自然景觀石裝飾。
    3.3、 環境保護設計措施
    3.3.1、 水環境保護
    1) 施工泥沙、建筑廢棄物不得傾倒入河, 河道內禁止設置棄渣場;2) 生產廢水:產生的少量施工廢水均可導流進入基坑廢水集水井, 采取簡易的絮凝沉淀處理, 經沉淀后用泵站抽出作為施工用水生產回用;3) 生活污水:施工人員生活洗滌、清潔衛生等生活污水都排入化糞池, 經處理后作為農肥使用。
    3.3.2、 防洪預防措施
    1) 生態預防:搞好白龍河壩溝流域內的水土保持, 綠化荒山, 保護植被, 減少水土流失;2) 工程預防:多渠道籌集資金, 集資投勞, 加快上游河段的綜合治理, 對險工險段進行除險加固, 保證工程安全渡汛。

      4、 結語

      總而言之, 實行生態治河是河道生態恢復的方向, 所產生的經濟效益、社會效益和環保效益是不容忽視的。通過河道疏浚、堤岸生態修復等河道治理措施以及水環境保護、防洪預防等環境保護設計措施, 能夠切實解決白龍河當前存在的水環境及水生態問題, 實現該地區水生態的綜合治理, 使其成為遵義市播州區楓香紅色旅游創新區靚麗的水生態景觀帶。

      參考文獻:
    [1]熊坤楊, 劉伯娟.低影響開發技術在湖北省潛江東干渠生態治理中的應用[J].水利水電技術, 2016, 47 (7) :118-120.

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