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    混凝土裂縫性質的分析
    RSS 打印 復制鏈接 發布時間:2019-06-13 09:57:49

    1.觀感性裂縫

    肉眼可見的裂縫均屬于觀感性裂縫。觀感性裂縫會造成觀感上的不舒適,甚至引起“結構不安全”的心理壓力。不僅僅在混凝土結構中有可見裂縫,在其他傳統的砌體結構、磚木結構等結構中也會普遍存在著可見裂縫。例如,樓蓋木板間的拼縫、預制板之間的拼縫、砌體中沿砌筑灰漿的裂縫、磚墻與木柱、木梁間的縫隙等等。

    實際工程中的絕大多數可見裂縫都屬于觀感性裂縫,這些裂縫基本上不影響結構安全和使用功能,僅對觀感造成影響,屬于常見的外觀質量缺陷。例如,正常承載引起的受力裂縫,溫度一收縮引起的間接裂縫等。觀感性裂縫實際上在工程中早已存在,只是近年因推廣現澆結構又未能妥善解決材料及施工中的諸多問題,加上一些非技術因素的影響,才造成了較大的反映。

    由于影響美觀和裝飾性效果,還可能引起用戶的不安全感,因此觀感性裂縫應在其發展停滯以后進行封閉或遮掩,只要用戶看不見而避免造成視覺的不快或不安全感就可以了。

    2.功能性裂縫

    結構作為建筑的載體,隔絕自然環境而形成避免風吹、雨淋、日曬的舒適空間。但是,如果這種圍護隔絕因裂縫而受到影響時,就會發生使用功能上的缺陷。混凝土結構除承載受力以外,某些構件(板、墻、殼等)還起到圍護的作用。與外界環境接觸的部分——屋蓋、外墻、地下室墻等,還有防水、抗滲的功能要求。此外,水池、油庫、儲氣柜等構件,更有密封和防止泄露的特殊要求。如果在這些構件中發生貫通性裂縫,則難免引起漏氣、滲水等使用功能上的缺陷,這就是功能性的裂縫,當然這類裂縫是不允許發生的。

    最常見的功能性缺陷是引起透水、滲漏的裂縫,多見于混凝土結構屋蓋、樓板和墻體上。這種裂縫寬窄不等,但均為橫貫截面的通透性裂縫,即一般老百姓所說的混凝土板(或墻)“裂通”或者“斷裂”了。因此,這種裂縫往往引起用戶對使用功能的不滿和對結構安全的疑慮,解決和處理的難度比較大。

    實際上,混凝土結構中真正影響安全的受力裂縫往往是楔形的(拉區開裂而壓區閉合),并且不會貫通截面。而引起滲漏的貫通性裂縫往往只是由于收縮、溫差等引起的間接裂縫,對結構安全通常沒有直接的影響。

    當然,漏雨和滲水本身就是影響結構使用功能的重大缺陷,因為遮隔風雨也是結構重要的功能要求。此外,儲存氣體或液體的混凝土容器(如水池、氣缸、油庫等)也絕不能發生貫通性的裂縫,因為密封性正是這類混凝土結構最重要的使用功能。

    功能性裂縫一般不影響結構安全,但會影響建筑的使用功能,仍應給予足夠的重視,應在設計、施工中采取必要的措施加以避免。一旦發生,也必須及時處理。在一般情況下,進行裂縫封閉,阻斷滲漏通道就可以了。

    3.結構性裂縫

    結構性裂縫屬于受力裂縫,并且已經發展到影響結構抗力的程度。由于承載受力在混凝土結構中引起的可見裂縫,比較直接地反映了結構本身所具有的抗力與荷載作用引起效應的相對關系,因此裂縫的形態和寬度,往往表明了抗力的消耗的程度和冗余的安全儲備。

    盡管混凝土結構受力以后裂縫難以避免,但裂縫的狀態卻與結構的抗力與安全有關。寬度很大超過限值的嚴重裂縫,一般反映了抗力已經有了很大消耗;而有些裂縫形態則是抗力消耗將盡,即將發生破壞的預兆。特別是標志可能發生脆性破壞的先兆性裂縫,預示著構件可能發生斷裂、壓潰等形態的突發性破壞,甚至可能引起倒塌,更應引起警惕。

    對于結構性裂縫,應通過檢測鑒定或計算復核,檢查其安全儲備。必要時還應進行加固處理,以保證安全。但是,在實際工程中結構性裂縫并不多見,一般只占可見裂縫的極少數。應該學會識別結構性裂縫(受力裂縫),并從其形態中判斷結構的安全狀況。當然,這需要一定的力學概念、結構常識和豐富的工程經驗。

    4.耐久性裂縫

    耐久性裂縫比較特殊,具有很明顯的時間性。早期其多表現為觀感性裂縫,而后期發展到嚴重程度以后,則完全有可能成為影響安全的結構性裂縫或使用功能的裂縫。

    長期以來,我們對耐久性問題不夠重視,包括對耐久性裂縫的發展規律及可能造成的影響和后果缺乏必要的研究。隨著大規模基建高潮過去,耐久性缺陷(包括對耐久性裂縫的處理)將成為建筑業發展的重要問題。

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